Tuesday, December 11, 2012

Possibly Habitable Super-Earths & Exoplanets: Catalog To Date


Possibly Habitable Super-Earths 
Catalog To Date

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The Habitable Exoplanets Catalog (HEC) is an online database for scientists, educators, and the general public focused on potential habitable exoplanets discoveries. The catalog uses various habitability indices and classifications to identify, rank, and compare exoplanets, including potential satellites, or exomoons. The catalog is updated as new data is available.


Current Potential Habitable Exoplanets
#1
#2
#3
#4
#5
#6
#7
Gliese 581g*Gliese 667CcKepler 22bHD 40307g*HD 85512bGliese 163cGliese 581d


Compared with Earth and Mars and Ranked in Order of Similarity to Earth
Images are artistic representations.


 *planet candidatesEarthMars
The original static image with more details is now available in the Results section

Credit: PHL @ UPR Arecibo, HPCf @ UPR, and ESO/S, Mash Mix: SPACE.com. Music: Mark Peterson, Loch Ness Productions

Last Update: December 5, 2012

Number of Potential Habitable Worlds

Potential
Habitable Exoplanets
Unconfirmed Potential
Habitable Exoplanets (1)
Predicted Potential
Habitable Exomoons (2)
η Earth(3)
7 27 30 1.6 %

All Currently Known Exoplanets

Confirmed Exoplanets (4) NASA Kepler Candidates (5) Other Unconfirmed Exoplanets (4)
853 2320 180
Notes

(1) Based on NASA Kepler Mission exoplanet candidates waiting for confirmation.
(2) Estimate based on the number of gas giant planets in the habitable zone with the right mass for a near Earth-size moon.
(3) η Earth (Eta Earth) is the stellar frequency of potential habitable exoplanets based on observed values (this is a lower limit).
(4) Confirmed and unconfirmed exoplanets are those listed by the Extrasolar Planets Encyclopedia plus any recent pending additions.
(5) Most of NASA Kepler Candidates are unconfirmed exoplanets.

Help Search for Exoplanets and Extraterrestrial Life from Home



General Characteristics of Potential Habitable Exoplanets


The following section contains more specific information about these exoplanets. The images show artistic representations of each exoplanet, an actual image of their parent star in false colors (taken by NASA's WISE Mission), and a diagram of their constellation location in the night sky. All these exoplanets are classified as superterrans (aka Super-Earths), which are planets with masses between two to ten Earth masses. The poster available here has these images in higher resolution.

#1. Gliese 581 g: Warm Superterran Exoplanet in the Constellation Libra



Mass
(Earth Masses)
Radius
(Earth Radii)
Surface Temp
(°C)
Orbital Period
(days)
Distance
(light years)
Age
(Gyears)
2.6* 1.4* 10* 32 20.2 8
* estimated values, observed data in the Extrasolar Planet Encyclopedia.

Discovered in 2010 by Scientists from the Following Countries: United States




#2. Gliese 667C c: Warm Superterran Exoplanet in the Constellation Scorpius



Mass
(Earth Masses)
Radius
(Earth Radii)
Surface Temp
(°C)
Orbital Period
(days)
Distance
(light years)
Age
(Gyears)
4.9* 1.9* 27* 28 23.6 <2
* estimated values, observed data in the Extrasolar Planet EncyclopediaExoplanets Data Explorer, and NASA Exoplanet Archive.

Discovered in 2011 by Scientists from the Following Countries: France, Switzerland, Belgium, Portugal

   



#3. Kepler-22 b: Warm Superterran Exoplanet in the Constellation Cygnus



Mass
(Earth Masses)
Radius
(Earth Radii)
Surface Temp
(°C)
Orbital Period
(days)
Distance
(light years)
Age
(Gyears)
6.4* 2.1 31* 290 535.9 ?
* estimated values, observed data in the Extrasolar Planet EncyclopediaExoplanets Data Explorer, and NASA Exoplanet Archive.

Discovered in 2011 by Scientists from the Following Countries: 
United States, Denmark, UK, Australia, Netherlands, France

       



#4. HD 40307 g: Warm Superterran Exoplanet in the Constellation Pictor


Mass
(Earth Masses)
Radius
(Earth Radii)
Surface Temp
(°C)
Orbital Period
(days)
Distance
(light years)
Age
(Gyears)
8.2*2.4*6*19841.7~4.5
* estimated values, observed data in the Extrasolar Planet Encyclopedia.

Discovered in 2012 by Scientists from the Following Countries: UK/Finland, Germany, United States.

   



#5. HD 85512 b: Warm Superterran Exoplanet in the Constellation Vela



Mass
(Earth Masses)
Radius
(Earth Radii)
Surface Temp
(°C)
Orbital Period
(days)
Distance
(light years)
Age
(Gyears)
4.0* 1.7* 78* 58 36.3 5.61
* estimated values, observed data in the Extrasolar Planet EncyclopediaExoplanets Data Explorer, and NASA Exoplanet Archive.

Discovered in 2011 by Scientists from the Following Countries: Switzerland, France, Portugal
  



#6. Gliese 163 c: Warm Superterran Exoplanet in the Constellation Dorado



Mass
(Earth Masses)
Radius
(Earth Radii)
Surface Temp
(°C)
Orbital Period
(days)
Distance
(light years)
Age
(Gyears)
8.3* 2.4* 61* 26 48.9 >1
* estimated values, observed data in the Extrasolar Planet Encyclopedia.

Discovered in 2012 by Scientists from the Following Countries: France, Germany, Portugal, Switzerland, and Belgium.

    



#7. Gliese 581 d: Warm Superterran Exoplanet in the Constellation Libra



Mass
(Earth Masses)
Radius
(Earth Radii)
Surface Temp
(°C)
Orbital Period
(days)
Distance
(light years)
Age
(Gyears)
6.9* 2.2* -37* 67 20.2 8
* estimated values, observed data in the Extrasolar Planet EncyclopediaExoplanets Data Explorer, and NASA Exoplanet Archive.

Discovered in 2007 by Scientists from the Following Countries: Switzerland, Portugal, France

  

Important Notes


  • Gliese 581g and HD 40307g are planet candidates and new observations are necessary to confirm them.
  • Gliese 667Cc was originally announced on November 2011 by a team from France, Switzerland, Belgium, and Portugal. However, it was later independently and formally announced on February 2012 by a team from the United States, Germany, Chile, Italy, Australia, and UK. Therefore, other exoplanet catalogs might list different discoverers for Gliese 667Cc.
  • Kepler-22 b is an exoplanet in the border of our habitability definition. Its habitability is much uncertain than the others.
  • Some values for mass and radius, as indicated, where estimated or modeled assuming expected inclinations for the planetary system or from an empirical mass-radius relationship. Surface temperature estimates where done for comparison only and assumed a planet with a similar Earth-like atmosphere. There are large uncertainties in these estimates.
  • The discoverers countries correspond to the country of the institution of the scientists at the moment of the publication of their discovery paper. This do not necessarily correlates with the nationality of the discoverers. Some of the exoplanets observations are done with telescopes outside of the author's institutions or with the support of others, thus other countries are generally involved as well in these discoveries.

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